It is a difficult task giving precise instructions on the execution of new paint and/or varnish work and the maintenance of existing paint and/or varnish work.
Many new and different materials are being used in the construction of new vessels and in case of existing vessels, the condition of the old paint/varnish work may vary, therefore, we can only provide general guidelines.
The final result of the paintwork is strongly influenced by the condition and
preparation of the existing surface and the conditions under which the products
are being used.
CLEANING AND DEGREASING
Prior to sanding, ensure that the surface is clean and well de-greased. On existing paint or varnish layers water soluble dirt may be removed with water and
ammonia. After drying, de-grease with Epifanes Spray thinner for Paint & Varnish. Never use water or products containing water on bare wood as these may activate substances in the wood fibres. Wood's such as teak and mahogany require thorough de-greasing with Epifanes Spray thinner for Paint & Varnish or denatured alcohol. Allow sufficient time for the thinner to evaporate and the surface to dry.
Thorough sanding is required to ensure optimum adhesion between coats and to create a smooth undercoat. Unless instructed differently, sand every coat of finish before applying a new coat. Each surface requires a particular type and grit of sandpaper. Bare surfaces, primers, undercoats and fillers need to be dry sanded in order to avoid the intake of moisture. Sanding between topcoats can best be executed with a fine grit sandpaper and water. One should avoid visible sanding scratches in the topcoat. Sand between finishing coats of varnish along with the grain, preferably by hand. It is not advised to sand mechanically in combination with rough sandpaper as this causes rough sanding marks. Also, too much film thickness is being sanded down and consequently sufficient system build-up will not be achieved. When (dry) sanding, we recommend to wear an appropriate dust mask to avoid breathing fine dust particles. When sanding products containing lead or chromate, it is imperative that one wears an appropriate breathing apparatus. The recommended type of sandpaper and grit are determined in each system.
Make sure that the application and drying of paint surfaces is performed in well ventilated places and obey all safety precautions. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. When ventilation is limited, wear an appropriate breathing apparatus in order to avoid breathing solvent fumes.
Use only appropriate, clean and dry tools. For optimum result use clean, longhaired, soft bristle brushes of good quality. When applying two-component products by roller, use only paint rollers that are resistant to the (aggressive) solvents in these paints, like nylon or sheepskin. For the roller application of one-component paints foam or perlon rollers may be used.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
When applying one-component products, the minimum processing and object temperature should be no less than 5°C. (= 40°F). Two-component products should not be applied under 10-12°C. (= 50-55°F). During application, the relative air humidity should not exceed 85 %. When applying two-component products a maximum air humidity of 70 % should be observed. Application of paint/varnish in conditions above these levels may have repercussions on the drying and hardening qualities of the product. The minimum temperature of the object to be painted should be 3°C. (= 5°F.) above the point of condensation. Before painting, ensure that the surface is dry. When painting overhead on colder days, beware of condensation from your breath on the cold surface.
Avoid applying too heavy a film thickness causing through-drying problems and wrinkling. It is always better to apply two thin coats than one thick coat. Distribute the paint well and even. Do not thin more than necessary. Too much thinning causes sacks and too thin a dry film thickness. A thin coating provides only limited protection which can lead to a rapid loss of gloss. Too little thinning however, may influence the flow. Only use the recommended thinners indicated on the can. The thinning percentage depends on the temperature of the paint and environment. The indicated thinning ratios are general guidelines. Avoid the use of other additives as these may disturb the balance of the product.
Before painting, ensure that the paint is mixed well to a smooth paint substance. There may be deposits and/or pigments lying beneath the lip or on the sides and bottom of the container. Avoid the intake of air into the paint by stirring too aggressively. In order to avoid possible colour differences always use paints, on the same surface with an identical batch number, found on the bottom of each can. When applying two-component paints, obey the initial reaction time of the mixed product before application.
An important consideration when painting or repainting existing, unknown surfaces, is the choice of the correct product. In general, when a surface has been previously painted there are two possibilities. Either a one-component paint system or a two-component paint system has been applied. By placing a cloth saturated with solvent on the surface for 15 minutes, the difference will become evident. If the solvent reacts as a paint remover and begins to wrinkle the paint, it is a one-component paint. If the paint remains intact, you are most definitely dealing with a two-component paint product. In principle a one-component paint may be applied onto a well cleaned and sanded (320 grit wet or dry abrasive paper) one-and two-component paint coat. The bond is acquired mechanically by roughing the surface. A two component product however, may not be applied over a one-component paint coat, as the solvents of the two-component product will react as a paint remover on the one-component coat.